Development of the Collectivist-Sensitive Trait Forgivingness Scale.




Mounting evidence suggests that experiences of forgiveness vary across cultures. However, culturally sensitive conceptualizations of forgiveness lack empirical support, in part because psychometrically sound instruments designed to capture unique aspects of forgiveness in non-Western cultures are rare. For this reason, we developed the Collectivist-Sensitive Trait Forgivingness Scale (TFS-CS), which is designed to measure trait forgivingness within societies characterized by a blend of individualistic and collectivistic worldviews. In Study 1 (N = 597), exploratory factor analysis revealed a 16-item three-factor structure of third-party forgiveness, collectivistic forgiveness, and interpersonal resentment among South Africans. In Study 2 (N = 897), the three-factor model replicated in an independent South African sample. Findings also offered preliminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the TFS-CS. Overall, these studies support a conceptualization of trait forgivingness with similarities and differences relative to Western models and highlight the importance of appreciating the influence of culture when measuring forgiveness.

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