The intersection of brownfields redevelopment and these broader concerns presents a host of issues. Does redevelopment of brownfields connect to a larger vision for the city that links with "smart growth" and climate action goals? Retooling the original developer-centered vision of VCPs to promote broader goals is an ongoing challenge. Has the affected community been involved in planning for brownfields remediation, or has the developer controlled the process? The latter narrows the ability to view the project as part of a community-wide plan, and undermines its legitimacy. Finally, if brownfields redevelopment yields benefits, how can we measure success over the long term? Metrics for assessing this are only just now emerging. As I note in Part III, many key questions have incomplete answers today, and as a result, finality in brownfields remediation and reuse continues to elude us. I draw a number of examples from New Jersey, a Rust Belt state with many brownfields and a complex history of dealing with them. 20 Recent developments in that state, including a 2009 state statute that privatized cleanups, and well-publicized funding shortfalls and regulatory errors in 2011, highlight the challenges of contemporary brownfields redevelopment.

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