Again, is there probable cause to detain, arrest or search each passenger? Is there probable cause to search each passenger's luggage, their autos parked at the airport and their residences? This article seeks the answer to the hypotheticals in sources ranging from the judiciary's own pronouncements on probable cause to linguistics, history mathematics and cognitive psychology.
Ronald J. Bacigal, Making the Right Gamble: The Odds on Probable Cause, Symposium on The Tools to Interpret the Fourth Amendment, 74 Miss. L.J. 279 (2004).