This Note will proceed in five Parts. Part I will serve as a short introduction to the category of true threats and its place within First Amendment jurisprudence. Part II will examine the history of true threats and intent leading up to Virginia v. Black, highlighting the foundational opinion of Watts v. United States and the various intent approaches that became available in its wake. Part III will discuss the potential interpretations of the language in Black, and Part IV will explain how lower courts have treated the Court's definition of true threats in Black. Finally, Part V will address the normative arguments for each intent approach and suggest which standard the Court should adopt.
Paul T. Crane, Note, "True Threats” and the Issue of Intent, 92 Va. L. Rev. 1225 (2006).