Psychologists are uniquely positioned to help with our collective obligation to advance scientific knowledge in ways that help individuals to flourish. Growth mindsets may offer one such tool for improving lives, yet some research questions the potential to replicate key findings. The aims in the current work are to help explain mixed results and outline ways to improve intervention impact. To reach these goals, we first offer a brief overview of the links between growth mindsets and psychological flourishing. Second, we outline key theories of causal mechanisms and summarize sources of meaningful heterogeneity in growth mindset interventions, with a focus on those designed to improve mental health. Third, we provide cautionary notes that highlight nuances of growth mindset messaging in contexts with stigmatized social identities. Fourth, to conclude, we suggest areas for future research aimed at understanding how to most powerfully harness growth mindsets to help individuals reach optimal psychological functioning.

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