Date of Award

Spring 2012

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Carol L. Summers

Second Advisor

Dr. Manuella Meyer

Third Advisor

Dr. Jan Hoffman French


On Tuesday, 27 April 1965, in the House of Assembly an event known as “Black Tuesday” struck the capital city of Nassau, New Providence in The Bahamas. A political furor arose in response to the failure of the ruling government to accurately determine voter distribution and boundaries. In frustration, the leader of the opposition motioned towards the mace, shouting, “This is the symbol of authority, and authority in this island belongs to the people.” With a burgeoning crowd below, he then lifted the mace in front of the Speaker, and threw it down from the window of the House. “Yes, the people are outside,” he said to the Speaker and fellow members of the House, “and the mace belongs outside too!”

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