Off-campus University of Richmond users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log in to our proxy server with your university username and password.


Helen Xia

Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Biochemistry & Molecular Biol.

First Advisor

Dr. C. Wade Downey

Second Advisor

Dr. Christopher Shugrue


Modifying indoles, benzofurans, and benzothiophenes is of high importance in the scientific field. Indoles, benzofurans, and benzothiophenes have a diverse range of chemical activity, involved in many biologically-related interactions, and are found in many natural products. Therefore, being able to modify the substituents of indoles, benzofurans, and benzothiophenes in a controlled and efficient manner is pivotal to the innovations of the scientific field. Specifically, in the work described below, we developed Friedel–Crafts addition and alkylation on the 3-position of the indole with nitrones, and secondary acetates and tertiary alcohols, respectively. We also developed Friedel–Crafts alkylation of benzofurans at the 2-position and benzothiophenes at the 3-position with secondary acetates and tertiary alcohols.

Available for download on Sunday, May 02, 3024