Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Camilla Nonterah


The global prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to be between 8.7% and 18.4% (Samuels et. al, 2022), with approximately 843.6 million Americans having been diagnosed with one of the 5 stages of CKD in 2022 (Kovesdy, 2022). As of 2021, 1 in 7 adults were affected, which was about 37 million Americans according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2021). CKD is a long-term condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function, leading to a buildup of waste and fluids in the body. This can result in a variety of symptoms, including high blood pressure, chest pain, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, and fatigue. CKD can be caused by a variety of factors, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and others (Bentall, 2021). In terms of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the fifth and final stage of CKD, about 786,000 Americans were diagnosed in 2020, with 71% on dialysis and 29% with a kidney transplant; ESRD is a critical phase in CKD (NIDDK, 2021). This stage is critical because once kidney damage occurs, it cannot be reversed. Patients with ESRD kidneys are diminished to less than 10 percent of their regular capacity, possibly resulting in minimal or no functioning at all. Further complications also include but are not limited to joint, bone, and muscle pain, nerve damage, liver failure, and fluid buildup around the lungs (DiMaria, 2022). Lifestyle choices and genetic factors are among the variables associated with the development of ESRD.