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Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts




Within three months, the cities of New Orleans, Memphis, and New Bern were captured by Union forces in 1862, at a time of vast Union invasion across the South. New Bern, North Carolina was taken first in March, New Orleans, Louisiana in May, and Memphis, Tennessee in June. In all three of these communities, the Union attempted to suppress Confederate sentiment in part through the censorship of newspapers. Frequently, it transformed these newspapers into Union advocates, trying to extinguish Confederate loyalty with the belief that newspapers had the power to change the people’s hearts and minds. The manner in which Federal occupiers went about this and their reasons for doing so, however, differed. Sometimes the Union replaced leadership in occupied communities, it blocked trade, it interfered with infrastructure, and it required allegiance from residents in efforts to suppress the cities.