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Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science




Facing dramatic changes in self-concepts and life-style, people diagnosed with chronic illnesses often need go through psychological adaptation to reach acceptance and psychological thriving (Stalker et al., 2018). Adjustment encompasses multiple interrelated components that cross interpersonal, cognitive, emotional, physical and behavioral domains (Stanton, Revenson & Tennen, 2006). Emotions such as blame, resentment, sadness toward self and others may emerge with the diagnosis of the chronic disease (Stanton et al., 2000). In response to negative emotions, four contexts of potential forgiveness/unforgiveness: intrapersonal, interpersonal, health care system and medical providers, as well as spiritual, have been identified by previous research. Unforgiveness in each of these areas is associated with negative emotional/psychosocial, behavioral and biomedical consequences in different ways (Temoshok & Wald, 2001). For example, emotional consequences can occur as disturbance in self-concepts, helplessness, self-blame and depression. Behavioral consequences include suicidal ideation, isolation and social withdrawal. Finally, biomedical consequences include increased stress, immune dysfunction and disease progression (Temoshok & Chandra, 2000). Given this, the role of forgiveness should be examined in this population.