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Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science




The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature, in theory, depends on: the direction of photon propagation, the time at which the photons are observed, and the observer's location in space. In existing CMB data, only the first parameter varies, leading to the notorious problem of cosmicvariance. However, as first pointed out by Kamionkowski and Loeb, a solution lies in making the so-called Remote Quadrupole Measurements by analyzing the secondary polarization produced by incoming CMB photons via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect. These observations allow us to measure the projected CMB quadrupole at the location and look-back time of a galaxy cluster.