Off-campus University of Richmond users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log in to our proxy server with your university username and password.

Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts




The present study investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms, depression-linked behaviors, and peer relationship difficulties in elementary school children. Participants included 231 third, fourth and fifth grade students, mean age of 9.94, from two elementary schools in a metropolitan area in southeastern United States. Children completed measures of self-reported depressive symptoms, and teachers completed measures of depression-linked behaviors (aggression, asocial, anxious-fearful and social helpless) and peer relationship outcomes (victimization and exclusion) for each participating student in the spring. Findings suggest that children who display both depressive symptoms and depression-linked behavior are at higher risk for experiencing peer victimization and exclusion in schools, compared to children who are non-depressive and depressive only.