Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Leadership Studies


The foundational constructs of modernization and time conceptions are interdependent. First, I will illustrate and argue that an important relationship exists between modernization, cultural values shifts, and societal conceptions of time. In basic terms, the process of modernization and the motivations for development stimulate shifts in both cultural values and societal understandings·oftime. Second, expounding upon the relationship between modernization, cultural values, and societal conceptions of time, this project will create two different types of interpersonal cultural ethics: an "ethic of being" and an "ethic of doing." The implications of the differences between these two cultural ethics will be explored.

Foremost among these implications are the leadership challenges brought about by the changes associated with the process of modernization. This project will diagnose many of the salient leadership issues that result from the societal transformations brought about by modernization and changing conceptions of time.

The study will conclude with a case study that seeks to discern the dynamics of the predicted developments and their impact upon leadership and finally a section asserting the significance of this work and identifying several areas for further study. The case study is derived from the author's participant observation at The Desmond Tutu Peace Centre in Cape Town, South Africa.

Ultimately, the overarching argument of this study is that the process of modernization causes a transformation in both cultural values and cultural conceptions of time. These changes then necessitate a transformation in the type of leadership necessary to operate effectively within a society. Fortunately, these changes often occur in predictable ways. By investigating the various societal transformations that occur as a result of modernization and by analyzing the leadership implications and the possibilities for overcoming the obstacles that are caused by societal changes related to modernization, this study seeks to contribute a unique analysis of modernization and a new potential model for community leadership within modernizing societies.

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