Document Type



This study develops a four-factor framework (4F model) based on fear, suffering, values, and characteristics for analyzing depictions of physical-risk martial heroism. Specifically, this framework is applied to assess representations of two World War II flying aces, the Royal Air Force pilot Douglas Bader and his German contemporary from the Luftwaffe, Erich Hartmann. On investigation, it is revealed that Bader and Hartmann are either described as fearless or capable of continuing their heroic journey despite their fears. Moreover, the literature contends that both these pilots experienced immense suffering but eventually overcame them. Regarding values, Bader is portrayed as a conservative patriot, whereas Hartmann is said to be a romantic and chivalrous hero. In terms of their characteristics, the depictions of Bader highlight both his positive and negative traits, whereas the darker sides of the hero are virtually absent in the rosy representations of Hartmann.




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