They study applied the literatures on extra-legal variables and self-presentation toward an understanding of judgment biases in arbitration. Subjects were provided with a written case of a grievance over the firing of an employee for drinking on the job. The extra-legal variable of previous record was manipulated by providing subjects with a case in which the grievant had previously been drinking on the job or had never done so before. This was crossed with the manipulation of the impression management variable in which the subjects read either the grievant's use of tactics known as an account or an apology. Results showed that the extent to which subjects believed punishment for the grievant was appropriate, as well as ratings of other secondary variables were differentially affected by an interaction of impression management tactic uses, as well as the grievant's previous record.
Giacalone, Robert A. 1987. "The Comparative Effectiveness of Impression Management Tactics on the Recommendation of Grievant Punishment: An Exploratory Investigation." E.C.R.S.B. 88-7. Robins School of Business White Paper Series. University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia.