Making national strategy is a byzantine business in the best of times. When dramatic events happen, when the international arena is complex and changing, when threats and opportunities are uncertain, leaders struggle to understand and react effectively. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the attacks of 9/11 opened vistas that were unfamiliar and complicated. How did U.S. leaders manage those transitions?

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Copyright © 2011 by Cornell University. This book chapter is included by permission of the publisher, Cornell University Press, with all rights reserved. This book chapter first appeared in In Uncertain Times: American Foreign Policy after the Berlin Wall and 9/11.

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