Beyond Error Bars: Understanding Uncertainty in Ultrashort-Pulse Frequency-Resolved-Optical-Gating Measurements in the Presence of Ambiguity




Previously we showed that the “bootstrap method,” a well-known statistical technique, can be used to automatically compute error bars in ultrashort pulse measurements using frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) without the need for additional measurements or traditional error analysis. Here we extend the bootstrap method to pulse measurement in the presence of ambiguities, where traditional error bars would give misleading information. As a result, we provide a new approach to displaying this uncertainty, which nicely reveals the richness of information available (or perhaps unavailable) in a FROG trace (or other measurement) in the presence of ambiguities.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publisher Statement

Copyright © 2003 Optical Society of America. This article first appeared in Optics Express 11, no. 26 (December 29, 2003): 3518-527. doi:10.1364/OE.11.003518.

Please note that downloads of the article are for private/personal use only.