Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts




Recent years have seen increased recognition by those in the field of assessment of the importance of response sets, or as they have been termed, styles of responding. For example, these authors point out that it is naive to assume that the content pull of a test item is the significant determinent of response. No longer should these response biases or styles be regarded simply as sources of error variance, for recent studies show that response styles, per se, can be regarded as reliable and valid indicators of personality characteristics. The research design employed most often thus far for testing the Deviation Hypothesis and its corollary, the unimportance of item content, has been criterion group method. This design assumes that groups which differ on a priori grounds should be able to be identified by their characteristic styles of responding regardless of the item content employed.

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