Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Human Resource Mgt


Human Resource Management

First Advisor

Professor Dr. Marcia Gibson


Emergency medical providers transport 911 patients who do not warrant emergency room (ER) transport via ambulance. This study's purpose was to determine if prehospital care providers, using established protocols, could identify patients accurately to be seen by a physician but require ambulance transportation. Fourteen agencies have initiated emergency medical service (EMS refusal). Alternative transport options would free paramedics to respond to life threatening emergencies, while allowing low acuity patients ER access. Ninety-three study patients were enrolled and transported to emergency departments (ED) via taxi. EMS determined eleven patients met enrollment criteria though refused participation in the study. Nine taxi transported patients were admitted to the hospital. None of the study participants required ED blood transfusions, emergent procedures, or suffered an adverse event attributed to delay in ED arrival by taxi. The study indicates that in its present status, Alternative Transport is not a viable option for Norfolk Fire-Rescue.