Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Richard B. Westin

Second Advisor

Dr. Harry M. Ward

Third Advisor

Dr. Emory C. Bogle


The efforts to equalize the legally segregated schools in Virginia began in the mid 1930's. It was a movement supported by the N.A.A.C.P. and others that targeted six specific areas: (1) Equality of school term; (2) Equality of pay for black teachers having the same qualifications and doing the same work as white teachers; (3) Equality of transportation for black school children at public expense; (4) Equality of buildings and equipment; (5) Equality of per capita expenditure for education of black students; (6) Equality in graduate and professional training. The major sources of information used included newspapers and magazines, Papers of the N.A.A.C.P. (Microfilm), The Budget Bills of Virginia (1936-1946), State Board of Education-Bulletin (Annual Reports 1934-1950), and Virginia State Board of Education Minutes. Of the six areas targeted for equalization, only the length of school term achieved full equalization by 1945. The other areas achieved only partial equalization. Therefore, the overall movement did not meet its objectives, but did make some progress.

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