Date of Award
In the present study, the relationship of sex and age of subject to emotion labeling, affect intensity and gender identity was examined. Subjects were 120 naive volunteers recruited from University of Rich-
mond undergraduate classes and community organizations, 60 of whom were male and 60 female. All participants were administered the Emotion Research Questionnaire (ERQ) along with the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Dependent variables were the total number of anger responses (ERQ-A), Mean Affect Intensity (MN-INT) , Mean Anger Intensity (A-INT) and Mean Fear Intensity (F-INT). The BSRI gave Masc (BEM-M) and Fem (BEM-F) scores for each subject. Results of six two-factor, independent group analyses of variance yielded a significant sex by age group interaction only for the BEM-M scores, accompanied by a significant simple effect for sex. Additionally, significant sex main effects were evidenced on all other dependent variables . Item-total correlations were computed providing some revision of the ERQ, and an independent content validation of the ERQ with the Zuckerman Inventory of Personal Reactions Form 2 (ZIPERS II) resulted in moderate to high correlations. The findings supported the hypotheses that females demonstrated higher overall emotional intensity, anger intensity, fear intensity and Bern Fem scores, while males tended to show higher ERQ anger and Bern Masc scores. The influence of the significant F-max for the ERQ-A ANOVA was discussed, as was the nonsignificance of the age factor. Results were presented in terms of cognitive appraisal and social learning theories. Suggestions for future investigations involving the ERQ included control of demographic variables, multivariate prediction of scores and a closer look at the criteria for separating age group?
Desselles, Marita Leonie, "Sex and age differences in the labeling and intensity of emotion" (1979). Master's Theses. 430.