Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts




Expectancy seems to operate as described in J.B. Rotter' s Social Learning Theory (1954). His work , although seemingly related to that of other notables (Riesman, 1954, in particular), is distinguished through one vital concept-­ perception. According to Rotter, any reinforcement or reward will gain or lose effectiveness in insuring the recurrence of a preceding behavior or event only if it is perceived to have a casual relationship. One must believe the reward to be contingent upon his behavior or independent of it in order for an expectancy to be established (Rotter, 1954, 1960). It follows then that the reward or reinforcement would strengthen the expectancy that a behavior or act should be followed by that same reinforcement in the future and once established, the failure of that reinforcement to appear should reduce or extinguish the expectancy. Over time an individual establishes patterns for reinforcement and these differ in degree of attribution of contingency on his actions (Rotter, 1966).

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