Date of Award

Summer 1957

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts




In her book, William Morris, Medievalist Revolutionary, Margaret R. Grennan says, "What the invention of the telescope did for space in the seventeenth century, the sense of the past accomplished for time in the nineteenth." In- other words, this "sense of the past, " though not a mechanical instrument like the telescope, nor aimed at discoveries within the realm of physical science, nevertheless served such men as Carlyle, Ruskin, Arnold, and Newman in much the same fashion as the telescope had served Galileo and Kepler some two hundred years earlier. If not renowned natural scientists, Carlyle, Ruskin, Arnold, and Newman were at least intelligent students of society: and they were, in a sense, the fathers of democratic socialism.