Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts




The purpose of this study is to examine the Root Mission to Russia from it conception to its final report and to evaluate the effectiveness of each member individually as well as that of the Mission as a whole. Further, major actions and responses of the Wilson Administration and other American officials have been considered where these actions have a direct bearing on the effectiveness of the Root Mission. This study also provides a narrative account of the constructive work of the commission and attempts to highlight those experiences which might well have had a significant impact on the Mission's understanding of the Russian situation. It is not the purpose of this study to provide a definitive account of all aspects of the Root Mission, its members, or the Wilson Administration's relations with Russia during this period. Nevertheless, this work does examine the majority of available sources relating to the Root Mission, its members, and the administration during this period of American History.

The scope of this paper is limited to the presentation of the actions, experiences, and viewpoints of the mission and its individual members both as to the Russian situation and to the actions of the administration. Naturally much of the correspondence between the President, Secretary of State Lansing, and other important Americans has been included.

It is not within the scope of this Paper to provide a definitive study of internal administration and State Department communications or to examine, in depth, the Russian reactions to the Root Mission or its members. All primary Russian sources contained herein were those that were translated for Root Mission personnel and can be found in American sources. Most secondary Russian sources on this period have little bearing on the Mission but often provide interesting background information. Several important subtopics require further study that is beyond the scope of this paper. These include internal State Department communications, Russian newspaper reactions to the Root Mission, and the activities of Charles R. Crane. Neither the primary nor secondary sources used in this study document or strongly suggest any other conclusion than the one I have reached. It is important to note, however, that the motivation behind the inaction of Wilson, Lansing, and other important American officials on the issue of a major propaganda campaign remains in doubt and to my knowledge undocumentable.