The landmark decision of Brown v. Board of Education held that the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibited a state from maintaining racially segregated public schools. After years of attempted but ineffective implementation of the mandate of Brown I, the Supreme Court attacked the issue with vigor in the late 1960's. State and local authorities-were placed under an affirmative duty to convert to a unitary school system which promised to work immediately towards the elimination of the discrimination inherent in state compelled dual school systems.