At the present time there are approximately 500 million Series E United States Savings Bonds outstanding about 75% of which are registered in the names of co-owners. Until recently there had been no consensus in the federal courts as to whether a registered co-owner of such a bond could remove it from his gross estate by making an inter vivos gift to the other co-owner without having the bond reissued according to Treasury Regulation procedures. This conflict in case law and its attendant confusion has had the effect of preventing uniform application of federal estate tax law concerning savings bonds. The issue was recently resolved in the United States Supreme Court decision of United States v. Chandler, which held the bonds includable in the gross estate for purposes of the federal estate tax.