The standards for exemplary damages in employment discrimination cases are in disarray. The major federal provisions that prohibit private employment discrimination, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Title VII"),2 42 U.S.C. § 1981 ("§ 1981"), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act ("ADEA"), and the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), all have an indistinguishably worded standard for assessing exemplary damages: "reckless indifference to federally protected rights."
Judith J. Johnson,
A Uniform Standard for Exemplary Damages in Employment Discrimination Cases,
U. Rich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://scholarship.richmond.edu/lawreview/vol33/iss1/5