Constitutional provisions, statutes and common law rules of criminal procedure, desigmed to protect an individual's privacy and security, require that most searches and seizures in the Anglo-American system of jurisprudence be conducted pursuant to a warrant. The Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, now applicable to the states, Mapp v. Ohio, ex- plicitly limits searches and seizures and outlaws the broad, general warrants and writs of assistance of the eighteenth century.

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