Although Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 has produced more than its share of difficult legal and moral issues, none has sparked more controversy than the question of the validity of hiring and promotion quotas. This issue has fueled continuous debate in the popular press and in scholarly journals. It has long divided former allies in the fight for civil rights legislation, and has even divided the two government agencies charged with primary responsibility for enforcing anti-discrimination laws, the Department of Justice and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
Paul E. Mirengoff,
The Validity of Court-Ordered Employment Quotas: A Statutory and Constitutional Analysis,
U. Rich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://scholarship.richmond.edu/lawreview/vol19/iss4/10