In recent years, there has been growing judicial concern about the fairness of action by administrative agencies and the ability of courts to effectively review this action. This concern stems from the increased use of informal procedures by agencies promulgating rules or orders, to accomplish the congressional objectives set out in their substantive statutes. In response, certain federal courts of appeal have begun to impose upon these agencies more procedural safeguards than are required by either the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) or substantive statutes. These judicially imposed safeguards are more commonly known as hybrid procedures.
Jon A. Mueller,
Counter Revolution in the Federal Courts of Appeal - The Aftermath of Vermont Yankee,
U. Rich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://scholarship.richmond.edu/lawreview/vol15/iss3/7