Municipal expansion by the annexation of surrounding territory involves two separate and distinct procedures in Virginia. Due to the Commonwealth's coverage under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, municipalities seeking annexation must obtain federal approval in addition to satisfying the requirements of state law. Compliance with the Act requires an affirmative showing that the expansion is nondiscriminatory in both its purposes and effects with regard to minority voting strength. Failure to meet these fed- eral requirements will invalidate the annexation, irrespective of its compliance with state law. This note will first examine the law of annexation in Virginia, highlighting its uniqueness among the states, followed by an exposition and analysis of the relevant federal mandates.