Controversies involving the first amendment rights of freedom of press and speech are not confined to reporters vowing to protect the identities of their sources against government prosecutors or committees attempting to identify them. An area of conflict of equal import is the degree of protection, if any, afforded commercial speech by the Constitution. In 1942, the Supreme Court in Valentine v. Chrestensen enunciated the commercial speech doctrine which has been used, despite subsequent criticism and attempts to limit the holding, to remove commercial adver- tisement from the ambit of constitutional protection.