The purpose of this essay is to examine and compare with our present practices a medieval text or summary of canonical procedure, the Summa de Ordine Iudiciario by Ricardus Anglicus-more narrowly, chapter XXX, which is concerned with witnesses. There are several reasons for examining the work of Ricardus Anglicus. This Englishman was a brilliant canonist in an age when the most ingenious and aggressive intellectuals were gravitating to the field of canon and civil law. Also he gives us a rather full summary of the subject.

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