This research extends the role incongruity analysis of employment-related gender bias by investigating the role of dispositional and situational antecedents, specifically political ideology and the salience of cues to the traditional female gender role. The prediction that conservatives would show an anti-female candidate bias and liberals would show a pro-female bias when the traditional female gender role is salient was tested across three experimental studies. In Study 1, 126 participants evaluated a male or a female job applicant with thoughts of the traditional female gender role activated or not. Results showed that when the gender role is salient, political ideology moderates evaluations of the female candidates such that conservatives evaluate her negatively and liberals evaluate her positively. Study 2 (89 participants) replicated this effect and showed that this political ideology-based bias does not occur when the non-traditional female gender role is made salient. Study 2 also demonstrated that the observed effects are not driven by liberals’ and conservatives’ differing perceptions regarding the female applicant’s qualifications for the job. Finally, Study 3 (159 participants) both replicated the political ideology-based evaluation bias for female candidates and demonstrated that this bias is mediated by conservatives’ and liberals’ attitudes toward the roles of women in society.

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Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.08.004.

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Hoyt, Crystal L. "Gender Bias in Employment Contexts: A Closer Examination of the Role Incongruity Principle." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48, no. 1 (January 2012): 86-96. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.08.004.