When we set out to examine the various forms and patterns of indigenous political participation in the three polities they are connected to—tribal, state, and federal—we are stepping into a most complicated subject matter. It is complicated in large part because Indians are citizens of separate extra-constitutional nations whose members have only gradually been incorporated in various ways by various federal policies and day to day interactions with non-Indians. Tribal nations, of course, have never been constitutionally incorporated and still retain their standing as separate political bodies not beholden to either federal or state constitutions for their existence.

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Copyright © 2000 Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy. This article first appeared in The Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy (June 2000), 732-751.

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