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Shaun Lamm

Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Karen Kochel


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of depressive symptoms on the development of social helplessness and withdrawal in children. Participants included 131 third and fourth grade students, mean age of 8.96 years, from two elementary schools in a metropolitan city in the United States. There was variability in racial/ethnic backgrounds, but a near equal representation of males and females (53%). Principal researcher and assistants visited participating classrooms and administered Qualtrics surveys to both students and teachers. Children completed measures of depressive symptoms in the fall, and teachers completed measures of social helplessness and social withdrawal in spring. Findings suggest that third and fourth grade children who experienced higher levels of depressive symptoms in the fall were more likely to display higher levels of social helplessness and withdrawal in the spring.