Off-campus University of Richmond users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log in to our proxy server with your university username and password.
Date of Award
Restricted Thesis: Campus only access
Bachelor of Science
Dr. Gary Radice
Traditionally vertebrate muscle has been classified, based on unique structural characteristics and physiological function, as one of the following types: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. However, the muscle of the lymph heart, a contractile organ found in amphibians, reptiles, and birds, may have structural and physiological characteristics that challenge this tertiary classification.
The lymphatic system serves the following two functions in all vertebrates. First, it monitors tissue fluid spaces for pathogens. Second, it ensures that excess fluid which has been expelled from the capillaries is reincorporated into the blood of the circulatory system. Amphibians, reptiles, and birds each have an additional organ, the lymph heart, which is a pulsating chamber located where lymph vessels enter veins (Satoh and Nitatori 1980). The lymph heart's primary function is to supplement the lymphatic system's passive movement of lymph by actively pumping lymph from peripheral lymph vessels to nearby veins. Mature Xenopus laevis possess two sets of three lymph hearts located dorsally on either side of the spine in the pelvic girdle.
Summers, Barbara, "Does Xenopus laevis lymph heart muscle express a unique myosin?" (1999). Honors Theses. 771.