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Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Thesis: Campus only access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Dr. Roni J. Kingsley


Calcification is a widespread process in both vertebrate and invertebrate phyla. The formation of bones and teeth in vertebrates occurs as a result of the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals. In invertebrates, there is a broader variety of calcified structures, most of which are calcium carbonate. Some invertebrates form calcified bodily encasements such as mollusc shells and coral reefs, while others form calcified structures which are found throughout the body in the form of either spicules or ossicles such as those found in sponges. It is, therefore, clearly evident that a geat diversity of calcified structures exist in invertebrates species. However, the process of invertebrate calcification is much less documented than is found for vertebrate species.