Date of Award

Spring 1995

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts




The history of businesswomen, like the history of businessmen, is largely stories of failure. Most of the Richmond businesswomen during this period experienced no success, some achieved marginal success, and only a handful achieved great success. For every woman like Mrs. Lyons or Mrs. Philips, there were five who failed within five years. But when one of these businesswomen failed, the effects were generally restricted to that particular woman, since most of these women ran small businesses that did not employ many workers. While their lack of overall success stands out, these women were able to achieve more control over their lives than most women in this era.

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