Ann Packard

Date of Award

Spring 1969

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts




The Treaty of Versailles and, more importantly, the Covenant of the League of Nations contained in that treaty have been the subjects of much debate and speculation since their final defeat by the United States Senate in 1920. This debate has centered on the question of who was responsible for the defeat of the treaty. Some blame Wilson for his obstinacy in refusing to allow the Deomcratic senators to vote for ratification of a treaty containing Republican reservations. Others put the responsibility in the hands of the Republican majority led by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. A number of influences shaped the reactions and attitudes of the various senators and caused them to vote the way they did. As the Senate debate unfolded the position of each individual senator and of factions within the Senate became increasingly clear.

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