Erin B. Hines

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Dr. Rafael de Sá


The internal oral anatomy of phyllomedusines has only been described for Agalychnis callydrias using light microscopy. Herein, we compare the internal oral anatomy of the genera Phyllomedusa, Agalychnis, Pachymedusa, and Phasmahyla, using SEM methodology. Tadpoles of ten species were prepared using standard SEM techniques; these larvae ranged from Gosner stages 34-39. Phasmahyla has a unique prenarial arena with three well developed pre-narial arena papillae, whereas the other genera possess the prenarial arena papillae in a semicircular arrangement with the opening directed posteriorly. Pachymedusa differs from Phyllomedusa and Agalychnis by having a low, straight-edge, median ridge; also, its buccal floor arena is limited by two converging rows of narrow, attenuate papillae. Species of Phyllomedusa differ from Agalychnis, and from other generas, in having numerous and well-developed projections extending from the mid-dorsal velum. Minor species-specific differences were found within Phyllomedusa. These preliminary results suggest that characteristics of the internal oral anatomy may be useful in understanding the evolution of this group. Furthermore, they may provide additional support to Cruz's (1990) recent recognition of 6 generas within the Phyllomedusinae.

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