Late in 1948, one of the radical Luganda newspapers in Buganda printed Dionizio Sifirwakange's rhetorical and distinctly aggrieved questions: "Has it become a crime for schoolchildren to evince patriotic sentiments? Why does the Government prohibit the assembly of the Bataka at the houses of their 'grandfathers'?"1

Sifirwakange was complaining about the repressive response of the Kingdom of Buganda and its ally, the Protectorate of Uganda, to a political and social movement whose most visible adherents were the patriotic schoolchildren, along with other youth and men of all ages, who assembled by the thousands at the homes of their grandfathers as they learned about politics, organized coalitions, donated money, and prepared to struggle for Buganda.2 During the late 1940s, activists in the "Bataka Union" expressed themselves as grandfathers and grandsons and mobilized tens of thousands of Baganda to read newspapers, attend mass meetings, donate money for international lobbying, and petition the kabaka (king of Buganda) with a vigor that turned into an armed insurrection. In voicing a rhetoric of grandfathers and grandsons, these activists imagined a new sort of citizenship grounded in local concerns over land, graves, and inheritance. But they deployed that identity to build a mass political movement that understood Buganda' s connections to a much bigger world.

Why? What did patriotism have to do with grandfathers? Why did young men - especially young men with education, military service, and a sense of patriotism toward a young Buganda - spend so much time meeting with and listening to senior men? Why were adult men in their 20s and 30s identifying themselves politically as grandchildren? The movement these youth and elders joined was not a culturalist movement emphasizing the past, but (at least in the 1940s) a dynamic, modern mass politics. Bataka activists used the technologies and tactics of modern politics - newspapers and pamphlets, loudspeakers and mass demonstrations, and international lobbying - to critique the power of British-allied chiefs. They called for elections, pursued self-help economic initiatives and discussed Buganda's future. They offered a vision of citizenship full of discussions of responsibilities and rights connecting Baganda with each other within an expansive moral community. Citizenship for Bataka activists was not about acting as loyal subjects to the kabaka; activists were concerned with Uganda and Britain, not just Buganda.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publisher Statement

Copyright © 2005 Boston University African Studies Center. This article first appeared in International Journal of African Historical Studies 38:3 (2005), 427-447.

Please note that downloads of the article are for private/personal use only.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.