Abraham Lincoln faced desperate challenges from the moment he took office until the day he was killed. While Union armies in the field struggled for four years against dismayingly effective Confederate forces, Lincoln fought to keep the North from breaking apart. The task proved unrelenting.
Copyright © 2010 Palgrave Macmillan. This book chapter first appeared in Lincoln's Legacy of Leadership, edited by George R. Geothals and Gary L. McDowell, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
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Ayers, Edward L. "What Lincoln Was Up Against: The Context of Leadership." In Lincoln's Legacy of Leadership, edited by George R. Geothals and Gary L. McDowell, 9-28. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Ayers, Edward L., "What Lincoln Was Up Against: The Context of Leadership" (2010). History Faculty Publications. 137.