Trade-offs complicate development interventions so that benefits for one group or area often imply costs for another; large-scale projects deemed highly efficient in economic terms may generate harmful environmental or social externalities. This chapter explores issues of justice in carbon trading in terms of decision-making power and the subsequent distribution of positive and negative impacts. It explores whether offset governance can help resolve widespread problems, such as racial or income inequality and environmental injustice.

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Copyright © 2017 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. This chapter first appeared in The Carbon Fix: Forest Carbon, Social Justice, and Environmental Governance.

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