Modified electrodes featuring specific adsorption platforms able to access the electrochemistry of the copper containing enzyme galactose oxidase (GaOx) were explored, including interfaces featuring nanomaterials such as nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Electrodes modified with various self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) including those with attached nanoparticles or amide-coupled functionalized CNTs were examined for their ability to effectively immobilize GaOx and study the redox activity related to its copper core. While stable GaOx electrochemistry has been notoriously difficult to achieve at modified electrodes, strategically designed functionalized CNT-based interfaces, cysteamine SAM-modified electrode subsequently amide-coupled to carboxylic acid functionalized single wall CNTs, were significantly more effective with high GaOx surface adsorption along with well-defined, more reversible, stable (≥ 8 days) voltammetry and an average ET rate constant of 0.74 s-1 in spite of increased ET distance - a result attributed to effective electronic coupling at the GaOx active site. Both amperometric and fluorescence assay results suggest embedded GaOx remains active. Fundamental ET properties of GaOx may be relevant to biosensor development targeting galactosemia while the use functionalized CNT platforms for adsorption/electrochemistry of electroactive enzymes/proteins may present an approach for fundamental protein electrochemistry and their future use in both direct and indirect biosensor schemes.

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Copyright © 2019 Bioelectrochemistry, Volume 125, February 2019, Pages 116-126

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