Myosin XIX.” In Myosins: A Superfamily of Molecular Motors




The birth of widely available genomic databases at the turn of the millennium led to the identification of many previously unknown myosin genes and identification of novel classes of myosin, including MYO19. Further sequence analysis has revealed the unique evolutionary history of class XIX myosins. MYO19 is found in species ranging from vertebrates to some unicellular organisms, while it has been lost from some lineages containing traditional experimental model organisms. Unique sequences in the motor domain suggest class-specific mechanochemistry that may relate to its cellular function as a mitochondria-associated motor. Work over the past 10 years has demonstrated that MYO19 is an actin-activated ATPase capable of actin-based transport, and investigation of some of the conserved differences within the motor domain indicate their importance in MYO19 motor activity. The cargo-binding MyMOMA tail domain contains two distinct mechanisms of interaction with mitochondrial outer membrane components, and perturbation of MYO19 expression leads to alterations in mitochondrial movement and dynamics that impact cell function. This chapter summarizes the current state of the field and highlights potential new directions of inquiry.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_20

The definitive version is available at Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology