Chondrocranial morphology of leptodactylid frogs is scarcely known and has not been completely described for any species of Leptodactylus. We describe the diversity of chondrocranial morphology in the genus Leptodactylus based on the analysis of 22 species, representing the four species groups: the fuscus Group, ocellatus Group, melanonotus Group, and pentadactylus Group. Furthermore, 26 characters are identified and used in a phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic analysis using Physalaemus, Crossodactylus, and Hylodes as outgroups suggests two monophyletic clades within Leptodactylus: the melanonotus-ocellatus clade and the pentadactylusfuscus clade. However, it does not support the monophyly of the species groups as currently recognized and it suggests a paraphyletic Leptodactylus. Enforcing the monophyly of the ingroup, i.e., Leptodactylus, results in the same major two clades of Leptodactylus. Leptodactylus riveroi, a taxon previously unassigned to any species group, appears most closely related to the melanonotus-ocellatus clade based on chondrocranial characteristics.

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