Corythomantis greeningi is a casque-headed frog that occurs in xeric and sub-humid regions of northeastern Brazil. Individuals are often found on rocks on banks of temporary streams or in ponds upon “lajedos”. Suctorial tadpoles are often found clasping to the rocks in the streams so as not to be dragged by the current; therefore, they have modified external and internal morphology. Here, we describe the internal oral anatomy and the chondrocranium of the tadpole of C. greeningi and compare it to the available descriptions of Lophyohylinae and other suctorial tadpoles. The internal oral morphology in C. greeningi resembles pond-dwelling casque-headed frogs, although it has been found in temporary lotic environments. Corythomantis greeningi has unusual chondrocranial morphology relative to that of other described Lophyohylinae, including marked differences at the cornua trabeculae and palatoquadrate. Apparently, the chondrocranial morphology is related to its ecomorphology, because it is structurally more similar to other suctorial tadpoles that inhabit lotic environments than to phylogenetically related species such as Trachycephalus typhonius and Phyllodytes gyrinaethes.

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