Disparities in the quality of human existence have been present throughout civilized societies whenever men have assembled, forming urban communities. The larger and more established these communities have become, the more pronounced have become the social disparities which separate their citizenry. Much of this social division is attributable to the age-old economic differences between the "haves" and the "have nots" differences accentuated by the complexities of modern urban life. However, with the modernization and increase of all varieties of municipal services, it has become clear that those "on the other side of the tracks" often do not enjoy the same measure of services as do their more affluent fellow citizens. The charge has arisen with increasing frequency that inherent social and economic disparities have been ratified and, indeed, perpetuated by discriminatory administration of these services by public officials. The degree to which urban dwellers are entitled to equality in municipal services is, consequently, an issue in need of definition.
Administration of Municipal Services in Light of the Equal Protection Clause,
U. Rich. L. Rev.
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