The March 1993 vote of the Judicial Conference of the United States endorsing the provision of the proposed Violence Against Women Act that encouraged circuit judicial councils to conduct studies with respect to gender bias in their respective circuits provided an official imprimatur of approval to such inquiries by the policy making body of the federal courts. Thereafter, the extent to which each federal circuit undertook to accept the invitation to proceed may have depended in large part on the zeal for the inquiry by the chief judge of the circuit or his or her delegated committee.
Dolores K. Sloviter,
Third Circuit: Gender, Race, and Ethnicity- Task Force on Equal Treatment in the Courts,
U. Rich. L. Rev.
Available at: http://scholarship.richmond.edu/lawreview/vol32/iss3/6